Tag Archives: management rights

Arbitrator says association has no right of access to harassment investigation reports

21 Sep

On July 15th, Arbitrator Sheehan held that a police association did not have a right of access to a harassment investigation report.

Arbitrator Sheehan held that the employer denied access for “reasonable cause” – the need to encourage witness candour – and therefore acted consistently with its collective agreement. He also dealt with the broader premise for the association’s case and, in doing so, questioned the a finding in which the OLRB held that a union’s representational role justified a similar right of access He said:

I have some difficulty with extrapolating the reasoning in those cases, as support for a much broader proposition that a union will necessarily be entitled to otherwise private/confidential information associated with a particular operational decision of an employer; simply on the basis that the information in question will be of assistance to the union to fulfill its duty of fair representation obligations. Or more particularly, that the union is entitled to such information on the basis it would be helpful to the union in assessing whether it would be appropriate, in the circumstances, to file a grievance.

There are numerous scenarios where the employer has information in its possession that may be quite helpful to the union, in terms of assessing whether there has been a violation of the collective agreement; and therefore, a basis to file a grievance. For example, in a job promotion dispute, the employer typically has information which may involve the confidential evaluations or interview/test results of the candidates. Such information would, obviously, be useful for the union to review in terms of whether in fact a grievance should be filed on behalf of a senior employee not awarded the position. In that sense, the union has an “interest” in the disclosure of the information. The duty of fair representation obligations resting on the union, however, does not transform that “interest” in obtaining the information into a “right” of disclosure, which would obligate the employer to comply with a request to disclose; solely to assist the union, in their assessment of whether there is a basis to file a grievance.

The disclosure of employer documentation arising out of a disciplinary investigation may likewise be of particular assistance to the union in terms of evaluating whether in fact there is a basis to assert a violation of the collective agreement.  Again, as has been previously discussed, if the request for the information should arise in the context of the adjudication of a grievance challenging the issued discipline, there would be a presumptive right (subject to a valid claim of privilege) for the union to obtain production of such arguably relevant documentation. It is, however, an entirely different proposition to suggest, that the employer prior to the filing of a grievance, is obligated to forward that information to the union; on the basis the information may be of assistance to the union, in its assessment of whether there is a basis for filing a grievance.

For similar reasoning see Arbitrator’s Lanyon’s decision in Mount Arrowsmith Teachers’ Association.

Halton Regional Police Services Board v Halton Regional Police Association, 2015 CanLII 47877 (ON LA).

SCC alcohol testing decision invites peace in the valley by giving a boost to arbitral precedent

22 Jun

The Supreme Court of Canada’s June 14th decision in Irving Oil represents a remarkable elevation of arbitral precedent to near binding law, contributing clarity on an issue that has been heavily litigated by employers and unions for years.

The ratio, at paragraph 31, is that an employer with a safety-sensitive workplace needs proof of “enhanced safety risks” (such as a workplace substance abuse problem) to implement universal random substance testing. Although the judgment was split, both majority and minority agree that this is the evidentiary burden endorsed in “remarkably consistent arbitral jurisprudence.”

The Supreme Court of Canada wanted to deliver “peace in the valley” without causing too much upset in its established deference-favouring principles of judicial review.

Upset is exactly what the Court of Appeal of New Brunswick had created by issuing an unprecedented standard of review decision in its handling of the case. The lower court applied the correctness standard of review because labour arbitrators had not been able to reach a consensus. Justice Robertson said:

In the present case, it is evident that the arbitral jurisprudence is not consistent when it comes to providing an answer to the central question raised on this appeal. Hence, it falls on this Court to provide a definitive answer so far as New Brunswick is concerned.

In response, the Supreme Court of Canada held that the reasonableness standard applies to the interpretation of a collective agreement based on its established jurisprudence. It did not mention Justice Robertson’s novel approach to addressing an inconsistency in arbitral jurisprudence nor did it explain how it reached the opposite conclusion about the existence of arbitral consensus. Did it find the jurisprudence to be consistent as step one in its aim to promote clarity in the law?

Step two involves the Court’s treatment of arbitral precedent in assessing the reasonableness of Arbitrator Veniot’s decision. The Court unanimously held that the reasonableness of a labour arbitrator’s decision will be judged in light of established arbitral consensus.The majority felt that Arbitrator Veniot’s decision was consistent with the consensus, which supported its reasonableness. The minority felt that Arbitrator Veniot’s decision was inconsistent with the consensus, an error given he did not provide a rationale for his departure: “In the absence of a reasonable explanation for its novel test, the board must be taken as having misapplied the existing test, which in the circumstances of this case rendered its decision unreasonable.” This treatment of arbitral precedent as so central is novel and significant, though both the majority and minority specified that precedent was particularly important “in this case,” presumably given the deemed “remarkably consistent arbitral jurisprudence.”

Arbitrators are technically free to reason their way around the ratio of Irving Oil, but why would they? For practical purposes, the Court has delivered near binding precedent.

Of course, the non-unionized employees are much more vulnerable, many protected only by anti-discrimination legislation and a theory for finding discrimination espoused in the Court of Appeal for Ontario’s Entrop decision that is becoming less and less consistent with the SCC-defined meaning of discrimination. In light of the Supreme Court of Canada’s gymnastics in Irving Oil, is there any doubt that the courts will find a path, however tortured, that leaves non-union employees with the same protection?

Communications, Energy and Paperworkers Union of Canada, Local 30 v Irving Pulp & Paper, Ltd, 2013 SCC 34 (CanLII).